snap-stanford, updated 🕥 2022-09-27 15:19:06

Inductive Representation Learning in Temporal Networks via Causal Anonymous Walks


This is the reference PyTorch implementation of the paper:\ Inductive Representation Learning in Temporal Networks via Causal Anonymous Walks.

The project website is:


Yanbang Wang, Yen-Yu Chang, Yunyu Liu, Jure Leskovec, Pan Li


  • python >= 3.7, PyTorch >= 1.4, please refer to their official websites for installation details.
  • Other dependencies: {bash} pandas==0.24.2 tqdm==4.41.1 numpy==1.16.4 scikit_learn==0.22.1 matploblib==3.3.1 numba==0.51.2 Refer to environment.yml for more details.

Dataset and preprocessing

Option 1: Use our preprocessed data

We provide preprocessed datasets: Reddit, Wikipedia, Enron, and UCI. Download them from here to processed/. Then run the following: {bash} cd processed/ unzip You may check that each dataset corresponds to three files: one .csv containing timestamped links, and two .npy as node & link features. Note that some datasets do not have node & link features, in which case the .npy files will be all zeros.

Option 2: Use your own data

Put your data under processed folder. The required input data includes ml_${DATA_NAME}.csv, ml_${DATA_NAME}.npy and ml_${DATA_NAME}_node.npy. They store the edge linkages, edge features and node features respectively.

The .csv file has following columns u, i, ts, label, idx , which represents source node index, target node index, time stamp, edge label and the edge index.

ml_${DATA_NAME}.npy has shape of [#temporal edges + 1, edge features dimention]. Similarly, ml_${DATA_NAME}_node.npy has shape of [#nodes + 1, node features dimension].

All node index starts from 1. The zero index is reserved for null during padding operations. So the maximum of node index equals to the total number of nodes. Similarly, maxinum of edge index equals to the total number of temporal edges. The padding embeddings or the null embeddings is a vector of zeros.

We also recommend discretizing the timestamps (ts) into integers for better indexing.

Training Commands


  • To train CAW-N-mean with Wikipedia dataset in inductive training, sampling 64 length-2 CAWs every node, and with alpha = 1e-5: bash python -d wikipedia --pos_dim 108 --bs 32 --n_degree 64 1 --mode i --bias 1e-5 --pos_enc lp --walk_pool sum --seed 0

  • To train CAW-N-attn with UCI dataset in transductive mode, sampling 32 length-1 CAWs every node, with alpha = 1e-6, and using another random seed 123: bash python -d uci --pos_dim 100 --bs 32 --n_degree 32 --n_layer 1 --mode t --bias 1e-6 --pos_enc lp --walk_pool attn --seed 123

Detailed logs can be found in log/, a one-line summary of the evaluation result will also be written to log/oneline_summary.log upon completion.

Usage Summary

txt usage: Interface for Inductive Dynamic Representation Learning for Link Prediction on Temporal Graphs [-h] [-d {wikipedia,reddit,socialevolve,uci,enron,socialevolve_1month,socialevolve_2weeks}] [-m {t,i}] [--n_degree [N_DEGREE [N_DEGREE ...]]] [--n_layer N_LAYER] [--bias BIAS] [--agg {tree,walk}] [--pos_enc {spd,lp,saw}] [--pos_dim POS_DIM] [--pos_sample {multinomial,binary}] [--walk_pool {attn,sum}] [--walk_n_head WALK_N_HEAD] [--walk_mutual] [--walk_linear_out] [--attn_agg_method {attn,lstm,mean}] [--attn_mode {prod,map}] [--attn_n_head ATTN_N_HEAD] [--time {time,pos,empty}] [--n_epoch N_EPOCH] [--bs BS] [--lr LR] [--drop_out DROP_OUT] [--tolerance TOLERANCE] [--seed SEED] [--ngh_cache] [--gpu GPU] [--cpu_cores CPU_CORES] [--verbosity VERBOSITY]

Optional arguments

{txt} -h, --help show this help message and exit -d {wikipedia,reddit,socialevolve,uci,enron,socialevolve_1month,socialevolve_2weeks}, --data {wikipedia,reddit,socialevolve,uci,enron,socialevolve_1month,socialevolve_2weeks} data sources to use, try wikipedia or reddit -m {t,i}, --mode {t,i} transductive (t) or inductive (i) --n_degree [N_DEGREE [N_DEGREE ...]] a list of neighbor sampling numbers for different hops, when only a single element is input n_layer will be activated --n_layer N_LAYER number of network layers --bias BIAS the hyperparameter alpha controlling sampling preference with time closeness, default to 0 which is uniform sampling --agg {tree,walk} tree based hierarchical aggregation or walk-based flat lstm aggregation --pos_enc {spd,lp,saw} way to encode distances, shortest-path distance or landing probabilities, or self-based anonymous walk (baseline) --pos_dim POS_DIM dimension of the positional embedding --pos_sample {multinomial,binary} two practically different sampling methods that are equivalent in theory --walk_pool {attn,sum} how to pool the encoded walks, using attention or simple sum, if sum will overwrite all the other walk_ arguments --walk_n_head WALK_N_HEAD number of heads to use for walk attention --walk_mutual whether to do mutual query for source and target node random walks --walk_linear_out whether to linearly project each node's --attn_agg_method {attn,lstm,mean} local aggregation method, we only use the default here --attn_mode {prod,map} use dot product attention or mapping based, we only use the default here --attn_n_head ATTN_N_HEAD number of heads used in tree-shaped attention layer, we only use the default here --time {time,pos,empty} how to use time information, we only use the default here --n_epoch N_EPOCH number of epochs --bs BS batch_size --lr LR learning rate --drop_out DROP_OUT dropout probability for all dropout layers --tolerance TOLERANCE toleratd margainal improvement for early stopper --seed SEED random seed for all randomized algorithms --ngh_cache (currently not suggested due to overwhelming memory consumption) cache temporal neighbors previously calculated to speed up repeated lookup --gpu GPU which gpu to use --cpu_cores CPU_CORES number of cpu_cores used for position encoding --verbosity VERBOSITY verbosity of the program output


Our implementation adapts the code here as the code base and extensively adapts it to our purpose. We thank the authors for sharing their code.

Cite us

If you compare with, build on, or use aspects of the paper and/or code, please cite us: text @inproceedings{ wang2021inductive, title={Inductive Representation Learning in Temporal Networks via Causal Anonymous Walks}, author={Yanbang Wang and Yen-Yu Chang and Yunyu Liu and Jure Leskovec and Pan Li}, booktitle={International Conference on Learning Representations}, year={2021}, url={} }


The memory cost continuously increases when running.

opened on 2022-11-24 08:38:02 by wangz3066

I tried to run CAWN on reddit dataset. The command I tried is: python -d reddit --pos_dim 108 --bs 100 --n_degree 32 1 1 --mode t --bias 1e-8 --pos_enc lp --walk_pool sum --gpu 1 I found that the memory cost of the training process continues to increase. Why is that?

Experiment on UCI

opened on 2022-04-02 03:23:08 by gy-hhhh

Hello! I tried your execution command for the UCI dataset in, but I didn't get good experimental results like the paper. I tried to adjust the relevant parameter information, but there was no greater improvement. I would like to ask how can I reproduce the experimental results in the paper? Thank you~

Discrepancy between processed UCI data provided and referenced UCI Forum data (

opened on 2021-07-14 03:16:28 by susheels

Nice work! I had some questions regarding the datasets used for the experiments.

The UCI dataset mentioned in the paper (Appendix C page 16) references ( The dataset is between users and forums (a bipartite network.) Has 1,421 total nodes with 899 users and 522 forums. It has 33,720 interactions.

However, the processed data provided in this repo and probably used to report numbers in the paper has 1,899 total nodes and 59,835 interactions.

On closer look at the processed dataset I find that you have actually used the UCI Messages dataset ( dataset which is not bipartite and the interactions are messages between user nodes.

If not, it would be great if you can clarify this discrepancy. Either the description in paper about the UCI dataset is incorrect or the processed dataset provided is wrong.

CMAKE The package name passed to `find_package_handle_standard_args` (OpenMP_CXX) does not match the name of the calling package (OpenMP).

opened on 2021-02-10 18:57:51 by rpaudel42

It first through the following warning when I try to compile pytorch using source file

CMake Warning (dev) at /usr/share/cmake3/Modules/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake:272 (message): The package name passed to find_package_handle_standard_args (OpenMP_CXX) does not match the name of the calling package (OpenMP). This can lead to problems in calling code that expects find_package result variables (e.g., _FOUND) to follow a certain pattern. Call Stack (most recent call first): cmake/Modules/FindOpenMP.cmake:565 (find_package_handle_standard_args) cmake/Modules/FindMKL.cmake:213 (FIND_PACKAGE) cmake/Modules/FindMKL.cmake:307 (CHECK_ALL_LIBRARIES) cmake/Dependencies.cmake:140 (find_package) CMakeLists.txt:564 (include) This warning is for project developers. Use -Wno-dev to suppress it.

And, - MKL OpenMP type: GNU -- MKL OpenMP library: -fopenmp -- Brace yourself, we are building NNPACK -- NNPACK backend is x86-64 -- Failed to find LLVM FileCheck -- git Version: v1.4.0-505be96a -- Version: 1.4.0 -- Performing Test HAVE_STD_REGEX -- compiled but failed to run -- Performing Test HAVE_GNU_POSIX_REGEX -- failed to compile -- Performing Test HAVE_POSIX_REGEX -- compiled but failed to run CMake Error at third_party/benchmark/CMakeLists.txt:231 (message): Failed to determine the source files for the regular expression backend

and it exit with saying -- Configuring incomplete, errors occurred!

Any help how to configure OpenMP?

GitHub Repository