WAL enables programmable waveform analysis.

ics-jku, updated 🕥 2023-02-02 16:23:55

WAL the Waveform Analysis Language

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The Waveform Analysis language logo

Welcome to the Waveform Analysis Language (WAL) repository. This domain-specific language aims at enabling automated and sophisticated analysis of hardware waveforms. In WAL, hardware-specific things such as signals and simulation time are treated as first-class citizens of the language.

Installation from PyPi

WAL is available from PyPi!

pip install wal-lang --user

On some systems, pip does not add WALs installation path to the PATH variable. If the "wal" command is not available after installation please add the installation path, e.g. ~/.local/bin on Ubuntu, to your PATH variable.

To get the latest development version of WAL you can clone this repository. After that, follow the instructions for your OS below inside the cloned directory.

Installation from Source

For Ubuntu (22.04 LTS): sudo apt install git cmake python3-cffi python3.10-venv python3-pip build-essential git clone https://github.com/ics-jku/wal.git cd wal pip install build make install echo "export PATH=\$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin" >> ~/.bashrc

For Fedora (36): sudo dnf install git cmake g++ zlib-devel python3-devel git clone https://github.com/ics-jku/wal.git cd wal pip install build make install

For OpenSuse Tumbleweed: sudo zypper install git cmake gcc-c++ zlib-devel python3-devel git clone https://github.com/ics-jku/wal.git cd wal pip install build make install

PyPy and Pyston Support

WAL also supports the alternative Python implementations PyPy and Pyston. Both alternative implementations can lead to substantial speedups in a lot of scenarios. To install WAL with an alternative implementation change the PYTHON variable in the Makefile or install with PYTHON=pypy3 make install.

If you are using PyPy you must also have the python-dev package installed for PyPy3. On Ubuntu this package can be installed with 'sudo apt install pypy3-dev'.


The WAL Programmer Manual is available on wal-lang.org.


To get an impression of WAL you can check out basic examples. Also, this ASCII cast ASCII Cast, shows how the WAL REPL is used to compare two RISCV cores.

A more sophisticated RISC-V core comparison is described here and the WAL code to this publication can be found here.


WAWK is a project building on top of the WAL language. It combines the waveform analysis of WAL with the programming Style of AWK. Internally, WAWK is transpiled to WAL expressions, showcasing how new languages can be build on top of WAL.


The initial paper on WAL was presented at ASPDAC'22 and can be downloaded here: https://www.ics.jku.at/files/2022ASPDAC_WAL.pdf. The examples from the paper can be found in the examples folder.

If you like WAL you can cite our paper as follows:

``` @InProceedings{KG:2022, author = {Lucas Klemmer and Daniel Gro{\ss}e}, title = {{WAL:} A Novel Waveform Analysis Language for Advanced Design Understanding and Debugging}, booktitle = {ASP Design Automation Conf.}, year = 2022 }


Emacs Mode

A basic major mode for Emacs is available here.


Support .vpd files

opened on 2022-07-22 07:28:44 by LucasKl

WAL should be able to loada .vpd files from Synopsis vcs.


Updated examples to fst and fixed minor bugs in fst lib 2022-07-21 19:46:55

2022-07-21 19:46:55

  • Added fst support

WAL 0.6.2 2022-01-20 23:09:46

With version 0.6.2 we significantly improved the performance of the parser and added a range of new hardware specific functions such as find/global and fold/signal. Also WAWK is now a sub package of WAL.

v0.6 2021-11-06 16:14:29

Version 0.6

The initial public version of WAL.

Institute for Complex Systems (ICS), Johannes Kepler University Linz

ICS conducts research in EDA with focus on verification, debugging, and synthesis; abstraction levels: SystemC virtual prototypes, RTL downto gate-level.

GitHub Repository Homepage

eda hardware rtl verification